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Observatoire des Actions de Groupe

Alexandre Biard

Alexandre Biard holds a doctorate in law, a CAPA (Certificat à la Profession d’Avocat), is a lawyer at the European Consumers’ Organisation (BEUC), a research fellow at the University of Rotterdam (Netherlands) and a fellow at the European Law Institute (ELI). He is the author of several articles and reports on collective redress in France and in Europe.


• Biard, Retour sur 6 ans de Dieselgate en Europe du point de vue des consommateurs,  Droit de la consommation – Consumentenrecht, Juin 2021
• MJ Azar-Baud & A. Biard , The Dawn of Collective Redress 3.0 in France?, in: Uzelac A. & Voet S., Class actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a wrong trail?Springer, June 2021.
• A. Biard & S. Voet, Collective redress in the EU: will it finally come true? in: Uzelac A. & Voet S., Class actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a wrong trail?Springer, June 2021.
• Biard & X. Kramer, The EU directive on representative actions for consumers: a milestone or another missed opportunity? Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht, 2019 (2), 249-259.
• A. Biard & B. Javaux. Les recours collectifs à l’heure de la Legaltech : l’initiative européenne serait-déjà obsolète ? Revue Lamy Droit Civil septembre 2019, n°173. 
• A. Biard, Collective redress in the EU: a rainbow behind the clouds? ERA Forum, 1-16
• A. Biard, Sale temps pour l’action de groupe…la nécessaire recherche d’outils alternatifs pour résoudre les litiges de masse, Revue Lamy de droit civil, pp. 21-26.
• A. Biard & R. Amaro, Resolving mass claims in France: tools and experience, RILE- BACT Working Paper Series(2016)
• A. Biard & R. Amaro. Contribution re France for the study Collective Redress in the Member States of the European Union, European Parliament/Trans Europe Expert, 2018
• A. Biard,  Class actions development in France, Global Class Actions Exchange
• A. Biard & D. Fairgrieve, Collective redress – France, 2015, BIICL – Focus on Collective Redress
• A. Biard & L. Visscher, Dutch Mass Litigation from a Legal and Economic Perspective and its Relevance for France, RILE Working Paper Series, 2014
• A. Biard & A. Pato,  Dancing Cheek-to-Cheek: Collective Redress and Data Protection, Leuven Centre for Public Law, 2019


With the support of the Class Actions Observatory (Observatoire des Actions deGroupe) and the Universities of Paris Saclay, KU Leuven, Leuphana and …

Unlike the consumer class action which was not certified in a parallel case against Apple, the judges certified one against Google regarding dominant platform …

Act LXI of 2022 on amending certain laws necessary for an acting consumer protection The Hungarian text is available here. A summary …