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Observatoire des Actions de Groupe

Alexandre Biard

Alexandre Biard holds a doctorate in law, a CAPA (Certificat à la Profession d’Avocat), is a lawyer at the European Consumers’ Organisation (BEUC), a research fellow at the University of Rotterdam (Netherlands) and a fellow at the European Law Institute (ELI). He is the author of several articles and reports on collective redress in France and in Europe.


• Biard, Retour sur 6 ans de Dieselgate en Europe du point de vue des consommateurs,  Droit de la consommation – Consumentenrecht, Juin 2021
• MJ Azar-Baud & A. Biard , The Dawn of Collective Redress 3.0 in France?, in: Uzelac A. & Voet S., Class actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a wrong trail?Springer, June 2021.
• A. Biard & S. Voet, Collective redress in the EU: will it finally come true? in: Uzelac A. & Voet S., Class actions in Europe: Holy Grail or a wrong trail?Springer, June 2021.
• Biard & X. Kramer, The EU directive on representative actions for consumers: a milestone or another missed opportunity? Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht, 2019 (2), 249-259.
• A. Biard & B. Javaux. Les recours collectifs à l’heure de la Legaltech : l’initiative européenne serait-déjà obsolète ? Revue Lamy Droit Civil septembre 2019, n°173. 
• A. Biard, Collective redress in the EU: a rainbow behind the clouds? ERA Forum, 1-16
• A. Biard, Sale temps pour l’action de groupe…la nécessaire recherche d’outils alternatifs pour résoudre les litiges de masse, Revue Lamy de droit civil, pp. 21-26.
• A. Biard & R. Amaro, Resolving mass claims in France: tools and experience, RILE- BACT Working Paper Series(2016)
• A. Biard & R. Amaro. Contribution re France for the study Collective Redress in the Member States of the European Union, European Parliament/Trans Europe Expert, 2018
• A. Biard,  Class actions development in France, Global Class Actions Exchange
• A. Biard & D. Fairgrieve, Collective redress – France, 2015, BIICL – Focus on Collective Redress
• A. Biard & L. Visscher, Dutch Mass Litigation from a Legal and Economic Perspective and its Relevance for France, RILE Working Paper Series, 2014
• A. Biard & A. Pato,  Dancing Cheek-to-Cheek: Collective Redress and Data Protection, Leuven Centre for Public Law, 2019


Law 5019/2023: Implementation of Directive (EU) 2020/1828 of the European Parliament and ofthe Council of 25 November 2020 ‘on representative actions for …

Law No 414/2023 on the conduct of representative actions for the protection of consumers’ collectiveinterests (of 19 December 2023) You can read …

New “Representative Actions” in Italy for the Protection of Collective Consumer Interests: Legislative Decree March 10, 2023, No. 28, implementing Directive 2020/1828 …

Representative Actions for the Protection of the Collective Interests of Consumers Act 2023(Act No 22 of 2023) You can read the full …